||Bacterial Reverse Mutation (Ames) Assay
||Five Salmonella strains ( TA97, TA 98, TA100, TA1535, TA102) and two E.coli strains ( WP2 uvrA or WP2 uvrA (pKM101)) can be used in place of TA102. Plate incorporation, Pre-incubation / Microsuspension, AmesII™ and MPF™ protocols.
||In vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test
||Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO)
Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (HPBL)
||In vivo mammalian (Rodents) micronucleus test.
||Mouse or Rat
Detects micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow or peripheral blood.
||In vitro mammalian cell Mutation Assay
L5178 TK+/- Mouse Lymphoma Assay
(MLA) Soft agar method.
(MLA) Microwell method.
||In vitro Micronucleus Assay with flow cytometry
||Cell lines (Attachment and Suspension)
This assay demonstrates high concordance with the in vitro metaphase chromosome aberration assay and mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells Tk (thymidine kinase) gene mutation assay. Use of Flow cytometric analysis with in vitro MicroFlow® kits allows rapid scoring of large cell numbers and micronucleus frequency measurements with cytotoxicity indications.
||In vivo Micronucleus Assay with flow cytometry
||Mouse or Rat
Flow cytometric analysis using in vivo MicroFlow® kits allows a rapid scoring of large cell numbers and micronucleus frequency measurements in bone marrow or reticulocytes in rat blood. It provides enhanced statistical power because of the ability to analyze roughly 10-fold more cells.
||In vivo Comet assay
||Humans, Mouse or Rat
(Any tissue) The assay can be integrated into general toxicological studies (with acute or repeat dosing) to reduce use of animals and ongoing clinical studies.
||In vitro Comet assay
The assay measures DNA breaks as well as alkaline labile sites
||Gene mutation, inter and intragenic recombination, aneuploidy, intrachromosomal recombination
||Saccharomyces cerevisiae systems
||In vivo Pig-a gene mutation assay
||Across animal species including humans Red blood cells